Here's a guide on how to unlock other classes and jobs in Final Fantasy XIV: A Realm Reborn by Hayley.
There is only one type of level with your character: the level in which your class/job is. You can unlock another class by first reaching level 10 on any class. You, then, just go to the guild for whatever class you'd like:
For example, if I'm a level 10 Archer and I decide "Hey. I'd really like to try out the Pugilist!". I would first have to find out exactly where the Pugilist's guild is. From personal knowledge, I know it's in Ul'dah (you can travel between the various city-states after you unlock the airship through main story quests around 15). When I get to the Pugilist's guild, the receptionist at the front should have a quest for me.
He then proceeds to talk for a while and then he'll say "Talk to me again if you're sure this is what you want" - talk to him again and he'll give you a simple quest to "Report to X" ('X' is usually the guildmaster) and the reward is a weapon for whatever class you're aiming for; Pugilist in my case. The guildmaster's quest is to equip the weapon he gave you and talk to him again. That's it! You're done! Just play the class as if you were born to do so.
- Each class has its own weapon type. Archers/Bards - bows, Marauders/Warriors - axes, Lancers/Dragoons - polearms, ect. So that's why your LNC cannot equip a bow; and even if it did, you would just become an Archer.
- If you switch to your bow, yes you will become an Archer; and yes level one; it would be as if you'd just started the game again as something else.
- You can perform a stat allocation. But, the stats are class-specific. So if you pump yourself full of strength for 50 levels and then swap to an ACN, you'd be level 1 again (like I said above. Like starting the game again) So once you hit 10 and onward on the ACN, you'd have the stat points to place wherever you like.
The best way I know to explain it is this: Jobs are basically "Archer 2.0" or "Lancer 2.0" - they are extensions of what you already are. You become a Bard, Warrior, Dragoon through an available quest at level 30 where you have to level something else depending on your class(I am an Archer, so at level 30, I had to level a Pugilist to 15 to unlock Bard). Once you finish the quest, you will receive a Soul Stone. It's basically just another piece of gear, there's a slot for it and everything. You equip and you just become a Bard, Warrior, Monk, ect.
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